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Understanding the Korean’s oral microorganisms: Biofilm-producing properties of Streptococci
Int J Clin Prev Dent 2021;17(3):154-154
Published online September 30, 2021;  https://doi.org/10.15236/ijcpd.2021.17.3.154
© 2021 International Journal of Clinical Preventive Dentistry.

Ji-Hyung Kim1, Young Je Ahn1, Yun-Sun Kim1, Jung Yeon Seo1, Hyojin Kim2, Byung Jun Kim2, Nae-Gyu Kang1

1Core-Technology Research Institute, LG H&H research center, Daejeon, Korea
2Oral Health R&D Division, LG H&H research center, Korea
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Objectives: Plaque can harden under gum line into tartar and become a habitat for the anaerobic bacteria responsible for periodontitis. Streptococci, dominant commensal bacteria, are known to be responsible for the initiation of periodontal disease by producing biofilm. However, there are conflicting reports of their role; they present in a high proportion in the healthy group and reduces the harmful bacteria associated with periodontitis. Thus, understanding the Korean’s oral microorganisms, especially Streptococci is needed. Through them, we tried to propose new formulations and oral care products.
Methods: Major periodontal pathogens were analyzed by real-time PCR and Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) in saliva from 93 adults aged 25-59 years and 10 kids aged 4-12 years. In addition, to clarify which Streptococcus species harmful for oral health, we defined and selected them depending on their properties of biofilm and acid production.
Results: PCR analysis revealed Streptococcus species and F. nucleatum presented in all ages with high proportion. The increase of Streptococci was correlated with the increase of F. nucleatum indicating the responsibility for the initiation of periodontal disease. Among them, S. mutans, S. sanguinis produced thick biofilm by metabolizing sugar and further caused pH reduction inside the biofilm. They were detected in Korean population 19/80 (0.016%) and 76/80 (0.622%), respectively. The biofilm formation of S. mutans was inhibited by sucralose (46.8%), xylitol (45.1%), stevia (21.3%), Sodium methyl cocoyl taurate (78.2%), propolis (69.0%), Centella asiatica extract (100%) and Lactoferrin (28.5%). Also, biofilm of S. sanguinis was inhibited by Sodium methyl cocoyl taurate (72.8%), Centella asiatica extract (98.3%) and Lactoferrin (94.2%)
Conclusions: This study revealed the importance of management of Streptococci producing biofilm responsible for the initiation of periodontal disease. In addition, by demonstrating the effective ingredients that inhibit their biofilm production, effective oral health products can be developed further.
Keywords : Streptococcus species, S. mutans, S. sanguinis, biofilm, sucrose, xylitol, stevia, Sodium methyl cocoyl taurate


September 2021, 17 (3)