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Study on the Relationship between Learning Motivation and Learning Satisfaction in Flipped Learning

Moon Sil Choi

Department of Dental Hygiene, Songwon University, Gwangju, Korea
Correspondence to: Moon Sil Choi
E-mail: ms9106@hanmail.net
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3256-2481
Received November 17, 2020; Revised December 10, 2020; Accepted December 15, 2020.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Objective: This research was conducted to identify motivation and learning satisfaction of university students by applying flip learning to oral imaging classes.
Methods: Data were collected after applying flip learning for 4 weeks to 30 students in oral imaging classes. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics ver. 20.0 (IBM Co., USA) to correlate mean, standard deviation, and independent sample t-test. Motivation and learning satisfaction were evaluated through correlation analysis.
Results: The research found that the correlation between learning motivation and learning satisfaction showed a significant static correlation, and that “relevance” was the main factor affecting learning satisfaction among the sub-factors.
Conclusion: In order to strengthen learning motivation and learning satisfaction, it is believed that efforts should be made on the learning process of flipped learning, the role of professors, and the utilization of necessary knowledge in major.
Keywords : learning motivation, learning satisfaction, flipped learning, student, education
Introduction

1. Research background and significance

In this era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, which consists of the convergence of information and communication technology, the need to train talents with creativity, critical mind, and problem-solving skills to analyze and digest information are emphasized [1]. Recently, universities are paying keen attention to core competencies in departments and learning competencies of learners [2]. In fact, changes in learner-centered education are taking place in the field of education. Various learner-centered classes such as task-based learning, project-based learning, problem solving learning, and flipped-learning are applied, and studies on these are also active [3]. Learner-centered class has the advantage of improving academic performance of students as they ask questions, find solutions, and foster critical thinking. The key point is that it diverts from competition to cooperation and from knowledge to competence [4]. Interest in flipped learning is rising as one of the learner-centered educational methods.

Flipped learning is characterized by technology-based preliminary study and active participation of students in face-to- face classes [5], and by reversal of traditional education methods. In other words, Pre-Class is conducted online; and in the actual In-Class class, students can make the most of their class time with learner-centered debate and discussions, and advanced exploratory learning. It has the advantage of improving the learner’s interest and satisfaction for following reasons: Learners can receive personal guidance from professors and experience interaction with professors and team members through discussion and cooperation learning; they can also learn from After-Class assignments and learn at their own pace [6].

Currently, flipped learning is revolutionizing education in various fields in universities, but conflicting and diverse results are reported in terms of improving learning motivation [7,8]. Therefore, it is time to further study the application and effectiveness of flipped learning classes. In the education of dental hygiene, the transition to active learner-centered learning from teacher-centered classroom is emphasized as a way to acquire new knowledge, theories, and skills. Therefore, measures to foster self-directed learning skills of students through flipped learning are required. Hence, it is necessary to identify the learning motivation where actual learning can take place and explore aspects of learners’ satisfaction and academic achievement.

This research aims to discover the learning motivation and learning satisfaction of students in major classes that applied flipped learning.

2. Theoretical background

1) Flip learning

Flip learning was first used by Bargman and Sams [6]. In an American high school, to supplement the classes of sports students, a video was made for lectures. So, as this video became known and popular with general students, it was used in class. These methods have gradually developed and have become a new learner-centered teaching method. This is a class model in which online learning, which is a typical lecture, and offline learning, which is homework, are reversed to improve the quality of classes. In the Pre-Class, the teacher produces and provides the content to be studied as a video, or the subject-related content is selected from the website and provided to the learner through online. In-Class is a learner-centered class designed to perform tasks in a collaborative environment through discussions with peer learners, assistants, and instructors using the relevant learning contents during classroom class time [9
-11]. The characteristics of such flip learning are as follows. First, as in the existing lecture-style class, learners are changed into active learners who perform prior learning rather than passive learners who simply listen in class. Second, individual self-directed learning according to the content and level of prior learning by oneself becomes possible. Third, in flip learning, teachers are converted to the coaching role, and learners with insufficient learning content can perform supplementary learning, and on the contrary, advanced learners can do deep learning with the help of teachers. Therefore, as the interaction between the teacher and the student increases in the classroom and the role of the instructor’s active guide increases, it can have a positive effect on the student’s learning [12,13].

2) Learning motivation

Learning motivation refers to the power and process leading to the role and action that induces learning [14], and such learner’s curiosity can exert excellent learning outcomes [15]. Song and Keller [16] stated that the most important variables for inducing and maintaining learning motivation of learners were attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction. Each of these has its own characteristics. First, attention is the role of attracting learners’ attention and inducing intellectual curiosity to keep attention while learning, and relevance is explained as being motivated and recognizing the reason for learning because it is developed according to personal needs for learning. Confidence helps you feel confident when you recognize that you have the ability to succeed and that you have an opportunity to succeed, and it helps you keep going. Satisfaction is a positive feeling that makes you feel good about your own learning experience and what you've done yourself, and if you have cathexis, interest, and confidence, it provides an opportunity to more fully motivate you. As a result, the main point of learning motivation is to increase confidence by engaging in learning activities by linking the attention and interest of the class to the learning content, so that you can have a sense of satisfaction with the successful learning outcomes.

3) Learning satisfaction

Learning satisfaction refers to the overall satisfaction of learning experiences and learning outcomes, such as acquisition of relevant knowledge, contents, methods, subject management, and tests by students through classes [17]. This indicates the success of the class and is also used as an index to confirm the effectiveness of education. In addition, it is used as a method of asking learners’ opinions to manage the quality of teaching and learning through lecture evaluation, as well as to improve instruction and evaluate educational services. For learning satisfaction, terms such as lecture evaluation, class satisfaction, and lecture satisfaction are used interchangeably [18]. In this study, learning satisfaction was evaluated by revising and supplementing the lecture evaluation items in [19], which had been verified for validity.

Materials and Methods

1. Research object

The subject of this study was conducted after completing the first semester class for 30 students who took “oral imaging,” which was established as a major course in dental hygiene at University A located in G city. After explaining the purpose of the study and allowing them to make their own choices, data was collected by signing a consent form and responding to a structured questionnaire to the students participating in the study. All 30 students taking the course participated in the class, and all of the questionnaires were used for final analysis.

2. Research tools

The learning motivation used in this study was developed by Song and Keller [16], and modified and supplemented by Lee et al. [20]. This was modified and supplemented by Park [21] to be suitable for college students, and the validity and reliability of the composition were verified. In this study, the tools used by Park [21] were used. The questionnaire consists of 4 attention questions from 1 to 4, relevance 4 from 5 to 8, confidence 3 from 9 to 11, and satisfaction 2, total of 13 questions. On a 5-point Likert scale of 1 point for ‘No’ and 5 points for ‘Very so’, the higher the score, the higher the motivation for learning.

The question composition of learning satisfaction is: First, ‘Is information about the class clearly presented?’; Second, ‘Did the professor thoroughly manage and proceed the class’; Third, ‘Did the student voluntarily induce the student to participate in the class using appropriate teaching methods?’; Fourth, ‘Was the evaluation management procedure fair and reasonable?’; Fifth, ‘Did the exams and assignments contribute to enhancing the learning effect’; Sixth, ‘Was the lecture content rich and deep’; and last, ‘Was the lecture method systematic and reasonable?’ It was a total of 7 questions, and it was composed of a 5-point Likert scale with 1 point for ‘not at all’ and 5 points for ‘very much’. This study analyzed which part of learning motivation is related to learning satisfaction.

3. Class design

In this study, the ‘oral imaging’ course to which flip learning was applied is a national examination subject. Due to the nature of the course, understanding of concepts and knowledge must be preceded, and based on this, it is a subject that requires feedback through cooperative activities for problem solving, practical clinical application and problem solving, and interaction between learners and instructors. To this end, a flip learning class using technology, an active learning method for learners, was applied. Subjects were applied after discussion through a meeting with the teaching and learning center educational engineering experts, two professors, and researchers after the flip learning teaching workshop.

1) How to conduct classes

Table 1 shows the ‘oral imaging’ class with flip learning.

Learning activities according to the stage of flip learning

Pre-ClassIn-ClassAfter-Class
Instructor• Pre-learning preparation (video production) 20-30 minutes*• Preparation of learning materials• Pre-study check (quiz) 5 minutes*• Collaborative learning: workbooks and activities related to lecture content (25 minutes*)• Q&A (15 minutes*)• Summary of learning contents (30 minutes*)• Feedback based on evaluation• Presentation of tasks suitable for learning goals• Reflection journal (15-20 minutes*)
Learner• Watch video lessons• Questions about pre-learning• Cooperative learning (learning worksheets and activities)• Peer learning• Presentation and evaluation (individual, team)• Answer quizzes and questions• Assignment• Write a reflection journal

*The time is the mean time.

The oral imaging class was 3 hours each Wednesday for a total of 15 weeks, and the flip learning class was held for 4 weeks (2, 3, 5, 6 weeks). During the 1st week orientation session, the concept and characteristics of flip learning, class progression and method were guided, and content utilization method and assignment method were explained. In the 2nd week, the energy change of the atom, the 3rd week was about the interaction with the X-ray material, the 5th week was about the factors controlling the X-ray, and the 6th week was about the characteristics of radiographic images.

(1) Pre-Class: It was explained that the teaching method is different because it is the learners who are new to the class called flip learning. It was explained repeatedly and clearly by emphasizing the need to watch the pre-learning video created by the instructor in advance and participate in the class. A concept-oriented video at the on-campus Teaching-Learning Center (Learning Management System (LMS)) 1 week before the flip learning class begins.

The lecture was loaded and guided so that you can watch and come in advance. The video is PowerPoint data within 10 minutes, and about 1 or 2 lectures were uploaded to the LMS using the EverLec program (XiNiCS, Seoul, Korea).

(2) In-Class: In this class, a quiz that can be solved for about 5 minutes was presented and confirmed based on the contents of this lecture in order to check whether the video lecture was watched. In addition, it was encouraged to check online attendance and to watch and come. In addition, after watching the video lecture, the questions were uploaded to the online inquiry and explained again in the order of the overlapping questions among the uploaded questions. And, by distributing workbooks to In-Class, problems to be solved individually and in groups were suggested. During group activities, the instructor communicated with each group, checked the status of the team’s activities, and provided appropriate feedback on questions.

(3) After-Class: At the end of the class, two students were paired up and had time to explain what they learned and conducted peer study. And in After-Class, the final study sheet was completed and organized, a summary of the day’s study was organized, a reflection diary on the class content, and students’ opinions on the class were collected.

4. Data analysis

The collected data were analyzed using the IBM SPSS Statistics ver. 20.0 (IBM Co., Armonk, NY, USA). To analyze the reliability of the subjects’ questions, frequency analysis, mean, standard deviation, t-test, and correlation were presented using Cronbach’s test and descriptive statistics. A questionnaire was distributed to learners after completing all the tests at the end of the learning motivation and learning satisfaction questions in parallel with the final exam. In order to prevent unfaithful questionnaire, the purpose and purpose of the questionnaire were explained again and encouraged to be faithful. In addition, individual interviews were conducted with 9 randomly selected learners about learning motivation and learning satisfaction. In addition, the online lecture evaluation at the end of the semester and the written lecture evaluation of students were analyzed and reflected at the same time.

Results

1. Reliability analysis of measurement tools

Table 2 shows the reliability of the learning motivation sub-elements and learning satisfaction.

Cronbach’s α test for learning motivation and learning satisfaction (n=30)

ItemnCronbach’s α
Attention40.824
Relevance40.825
Confidence30.719
Satisfaction20.694
Learning satisfaction70.900

The reliability coefficient of the learning motivation subscale was 0.824 for caution Cronbach’s α, 0.825 for relevance Cronbach’s α, 0.719 for confident Cronbach’s α, and 0.694 for satisfied Cronbach’s α. The reliability of the tool used by Park [21] was 83, and the reliability of this study was Cronbach’s α. Learning satisfaction the confidence in the question was 0.90 for Cronbach’s α.

2. Learning motivation test result

Table 3 shows the results of learning motivation analysis.

Learning motivation of flip learning students (n=30)

ItemF (%)Mean±SD
Various learning methods3.80±0.160
That’s not true1 (3.3)
Usually6 (20.0)
Yes21 (70.0)
Very true2 (6.7)
Various learning materials3.97±0.556
Usually5 (16.7)
Yes21 (70.0)
Very true4 (13.3)
Various audiovisual lectures3.97±0.615
Usually6 (20.0)
Yes19 (63.3)
Very true5 (16.7)
Study material benefits4.00±0.644
Usually6 (20.0)
Yes18 (60.0)
Very true6 (20.0)
Course interest4.07±0.691
Usually6 (20.0)
Yes16 (53.3)
Very true8 (26.7)
Acquiring new knowledge4.23±0.430
Yes23 (76.7)
Very true7 (23.3)
Provide other knowledge4.03±0.718
That’s not true1 (3.3)
Usually4 (13.3)
Yes18 (60.0)
Very true7 (23.3)
Understanding reality news3.53±0.776
That’s not true1 (3.3)
Usually16 (53.3)
Yes9 (30.0)
Very true4 (13.3)
New learning method3.87±0.681
Usually9 (30.0)
Yes16 (53.3)
Very true5 (16.7)
Knowledge well understood3.60±0.968
Not very so2 (6.7)
Usually10 (33.3)
Yes14 (46.7)
Very true4 (13.3)
Discussion enjoyment3.27±0.944
Not very so2 (6.7)
That’s not true1 (3.3)
Usually17 (56.7)
Yes7 (23.3)
Very true3 (10.0)
Goal achievement composition4.09±0.691
Usually6 (20.0)
Yes16 (53.3)
Very true8 (26.7)
Fair evaluation3.87±0.681
Usually9 (30.0)
Yes16 (53.3)
Very true5 (16.7)
Total30 (100)

F: frequency, SD: standard deviation.

Since I was able to acquire new knowledge about the subjects I took, 23 people (76.7%) answered “yes” and 7 people (23.3%) answered “very agree”, with the average and standard deviation being the highest at 4.23 (0.430). it was high. The content of the lecture was well-structured so that the goals presented in the syllabus could be achieved, so 6 people (20.0%) were “normal”, 16 people (53.3%) were “yes”, and “very agree”. There are 8 people (26.7%), and the mean and standard deviation are 4.09 (0.691). Since I became interested in the content of the courses I took, 6 people (20.0%) were “normal”, 16 people (53.3%) were “yes”, and 8 people (26.7%) were “very agree”. And the standard deviation is 4.07 (0.691). Since I was able to provide other knowledge through the lectures of the courses I took, 1 person (3.3%) was “not”, 4 people (13.3) were “normal”, 18 people were “yes” (60.0%), and “very so”. I think 7 people (23.3%), with mean and standard deviation 4.03 (0.718). The information related to the teaching materials was designed to attract the attention of the students, so 6 people (20.0%) were “normal”, 18 people (60.0%) were “yes”, and 6 people (20.0%) were “very agree”. And the mean and standard deviation are in the order of 4.00 (0.644) .The content of the lecture contributed to the understanding of broadcast and newspaper articles, so 1 person (3.3%) was “not”, 16 people (53.3%) were “normal”, 9 people (30.0%) were “yes”, and “I agree very much.”, 4 people (13.3%) with a mean and standard deviation of 3.53 (0.776). I enjoy discussing the subjects, so 2 people (6.7%) are “very not”, 1 person (3.3%) are “not”, 17 people (56.7%) are “normal”, and “yes”. 7 (23.3%) and 3 (10.0%) “very agree”, with the mean and standard deviation being the lowest at 3.27 (0.944).

3. Learning satisfaction test result

Table 4 shows the results of learning satisfaction analysis.

Learning satisfaction of flip learning students (n=30)

ItemF (%)Mean±SD
Lesson plan4.03±0.669
Usually6 (20.0)
Yes17 (56.7)
Very true7 (23.3)
Class management4.20±0.484
Usually1 (3.3)
Yes22 (73.3)
Very true7 (23.3)
Didactics4.00±0.455
Usually3 (10.0)
Yes24 (80.0)
Very true3 (10.0)
Evaluation management4.23±0.504
Usually1 (3.3)
Yes21 (70.0)
Very true8 (26.7)
Test assignment4.13±0.629
Usually4 (13.3)
Yes18 (60.0)
Very true8 (26.7)
Lecture content4.07±0.583
Usually4 (13.3)
Yes20 (66.7)
Very true6 (20.0)
Method of lecture4.03±0.490
Usually3 (10.0)
Yes23 (76.7)
Very true4 (13.3)
Total30 (100)

F: frequency, SD: standard deviation.

From “The evaluation management procedure was appropriate and rational”, 1 person (3.3%) was “normal”, 21 people (70.0%) were “yes”, and 8 people (26.7%) were “very agree”. The mean and standard deviation were highest at 4.23 (0.504). From “the professor thoroughly managed the lessons and proceeded”, 1 person (3.3%) was “normal”, 22 people (73.3%) were “yes”, and 7 people (23.3%) were “very agree”. The mean and standard deviation are 4.20 (0.484). From “examinations and assignments contributed to the learning effect”, 4 people (13.3%) were “normal”, 18 people (60.0%) were “yes”, and 8 people (26.7%) were “very agree”. The standard deviation is 4.13 (0.629). From “the content of the lecture was abundant and deep”, there were 4 “normal” (13.3%), 20 “yes” (66.7%), and 6 “very agree” (20.0%). The mean and standard deviation are 4.07 (0.583). In “The information of the lesson plan was clearly presented”, 6 people (20.0%) were “normal”, 17 people (56.7%) were “yes”, and 7 people (23.3%) were “very agree”. The mean and standard deviation are 4.03 (0.669). From “the way the river was advanced was systematic and rational”, 3 people (10.0%) were “normal”, 23 people (76.7%) were “yes”, and 4 people (13.3%) were “very agree”. The mean and standard deviation were 4.03 (0.490). From “inducing students to voluntarily participate in classes by using appropriate teaching methods and materials”, 3 “normal” (10.0%), “yes” 24 (80.0%), “very much” From “I think so”, there were 3 students (10.0%), and the average and standard deviation were in the order of 4.00 (0.455).

Students generally rated positively with a score above normal (3 points). Satisfaction was highly evaluated for evaluation management, class management, and learning effects.

4. Results of learning motivation and learning satisfaction after applying flip running

Table 5 shows the t-test results for learning motivation and learning satisfaction.

Results of learning motivation and learning satisfaction after applying flipped learning (n=30)

ItemMean±SDtp-value
Attention3.933±0.49143.8760.000
Relevance3.966±0.54040.2100.000
Confidence3.577±0.69927.9970.000
Satisfaction3.966±0.60036.1640.000
Learning satisfaction4.100±0.43951.1130.000

SD: standard deviation. p<0.05.

In learning, questions related to learning motivation factors were classified into each other, attention, relevance, self-confidence, and satisfaction were constructed, and the mean and standard deviation by question were analyzed. As a result of the analysis, the association of learning motivation factors (3.966±0.540, t=40.210), satisfaction (3.966±0.600, t=63.164), attention (3.933±0.491, t=43.876), and confidence (3.577). It was found that there was a significant difference between learning motivation and learning satisfaction after applying flip running at±0.699, t=27.997) and learning satisfaction (4.100±0.439, t=51.113) (p=0.000).

5. Correlation between learning motivation and learning satisfaction after applying flip running

Table 6 shows the correlation between learning motivation and learning satisfaction applying flip learning.

Correlation analysis between learning motivation and learning satisfaction (n=30)

AttentionRelevenceConfidenceSatisfactionLearning satisfaction
Attention1
Relevence0.487**1
Confidence0.442*0.699**1
Satisfaction0.547**0.581**0.772**1
Learning satisfaction0.2660.725**0.644**0.554**1

*p<0.05, **p<0.01.

Learning satisfaction is related to learning motivation subfactors (r=0.72, p<0.01), confident (r=0.64, p<0.01), and satisfaction (r=0.55, p<0.01). Learning satisfaction tended to increase in order, showing an attentional static correlation.

Discussion

In this study, after applying the flip-learning teaching method, which requires the participation of learners, we investigated the learning motives and learning satisfaction of the students. Overall, learning motivation and learning satisfaction appeared positively, and we sought to provide basic materials for improving the educational effect of finding a relationship between learning motivation sub-elements and learning satisfaction.

As a result of the analysis of learning motivation in this study, among the sub-factors, relevance (3.96±0.540), confidence (3.96±0.600), attention (3.93±0.491), satisfaction (3.57±0.699) were all significant in that order. It can be interpreted that learning is motivated by personal needs. In the previous study [3], it was felt that the flip-learning teaching method was more interesting than the existing lecture-type teaching method, and the video pre-study was interesting to the class, which induces learning motivation, which is consistent with the results of this study. In Kim et al.[22]’s study, the study motivated before and after study was found to be highly relevant in the pre-test, while the post-test had high confidence, satisfaction, and relevance, which was different from this study. In Lee et al.[20]’s study, it was different from this study because it had more influence on attention and confidence improvement among the sub-factors of learning motivation. In software education using flip learning by Han [18], there are significant differences in learning motivation in the order of attention concentration, recognition of importance, and generation of confidence.

On the other hand, from the perspective of reflexes, unlike other subjects, the new teaching method allowed students to watch pre-class video lectures on their mobile phones anytime, anywhere, and became interested in the class. What is Xu? In the study of Huh and Lee [23], the opportunity to learn by oneself after the pre-learning and the ability of the learner to concentrate on the collaboration and problem-solving activities in the classroom led to the motivation for learning. You can see it. It seems that the factor of satisfaction acted with confidence. Son et al. [8] also interpreted that the learning stimulus was performed with an emphasis on learning reproducibility. The results were similar to those in this study. Synchronized behaviors are behaviors that are performed for the joy and satisfaction that emerge from the execution itself, and learning activity behaviors are self-determined. This acted as an advantage in transforming passive learners into active learning [24]. It is thought that this created an environment in which students could repeatedly come into contact with the lessons anytime and anywhere with the development of technology, which improved convenience and understanding of the learning content, and motivated them to learn. In this study, we did not set aside questions that fall into the category of the concept of convenience, but it is considered necessary to study more broadly as an additional causative factor of learning motivation.

Learning satisfaction refers to a learner’s self-positive and satisfactory state of the overall process such as learning experience and learning outcomes. Relevance (r=0.72, p<0.01), confidence (r=0.64, p<0.01), satisfaction (r=0.55, p<0.01) tended to increase in the order of learning satisfaction, showing a significant positive correlation. In flip learning by Son et al. [8], the importance of prior learning was mentioned, and it was said that learning satisfaction can be enhanced when learners plan their own learning activities and have self-regulation ability and positive and voluntary attitude. In this study, the opinion that the class atmosphere was good by communicating and talking freely with each other in the group discussion, and when the instructor coached each group during the group discussion, students’ questions were more free. And I think that it gave students a sense of satisfaction as the question was immediately resolved. In addition, it is boring because it is boring to teach in the same pattern every hour and the motivational effect is inferior, so the part where various methods were applied always gave freshness to the students and promoted motivation. It was thought that I had a positive feeling because of the lack of class time. This will require the development of an environmental learning environment and teaching methods in which not only students but also teachers become facilitators for effective learning [25]. In this study, it is thought that the depth of class that students feel is different according to the weight of their activities in the actual in-class. When looking at the reflection papers, I thought that I did not class at first, but later, when I diversified the activities, I thought that the students also enjoyed them. Was thought. Satisfaction is a system in which students perform lecture evaluation during the grade processing period after the actual final exam. In order to check their grades, the lecture evaluation is required. The lecture evaluation result also showed an average (4.53±0.21). Therefore, it was found that the relevance was deeply related to learning satisfaction. When the major subjects of Kim and Jeon [26] were progressed, the higher the relevance of the content to learn according to the needs and purpose of the students, the higher the learning satisfaction, which is the learning outcome, was the same. It is the same as the research results of Son et al. [8] and Jung and Lee [27], who reported the results of improving learning satisfaction through flip learning. From the perspective of the instructor, it is a difficult task because it requires a lot of time and effort to prepare for class activities. However, it is believed that this is possible because the professors themselves began to think about their own classes as a way to explore ways to actively participate in the class. As a practical method when designing and operating flip learning in the future, videos are used to make the instructor’s face appear on the screen, LMS or Social Networking Service interaction to encourage continuous interest and learning, and time allocation to complete the learning in class It is believed that the improvement of learning will also be achieved if peer learning, etc. is applied. When designing flip learning, if various types and examples are shared according to the learner’s mood, rather than a model of a predetermined format, the satisfaction with flip learning will also increase.

As a result of the above, it was confirmed that the factors that the learning motivation of flip learning had a significant influence on the learning satisfaction of oral imaging classes. It was confirmed that the higher the learning motivation score was, the higher the learning satisfaction was, and in order to reinforce the learning motivation and learning satisfaction, it is considered that efforts to utilize the learning process of flip learning related to relevance, the role of the instructor, and the necessary major knowledge are necessary.

Implications include effective strategies such as video lecture method and time, and detailed teaching-learning strategies such as on-offline organically linked classes and time allocation in class design. It is significant in that flip-learning has shown enough potential as an example of learner-centered education in terms of student motivation and satisfaction.

The limitation of this study is that it is composed of 30 research subjects from one university, so there is a limit to generalization to a group of college students, so subjectivity and prejudice may exist, and it is necessary to verify the flip-learning effect from various directions in the future.

Implications include effective strategies such as video lecture method and time, and detailed teaching-learning strategies such as on-offline organically linked classes and time allocation in class design. It is significant in that flip-learning has shown enough potential as an example of learner-centered education in terms of student motivation and satisfaction. In addition, in order to increase the satisfaction of learning for the establishment of professionalism, it is thought that various efforts to utilize the counseling tools psychological tools are also necessary [28].

The limitation of this study is that it is composed of 30 research subjects from one university, so there is a limit to generalization to a group of college students, so subjectivity and prejudice may exist, and it is necessary to verify the flip-learning effect from various directions in the future. In the future, it is necessary to verify the flip running effect in various directions.

Conclusion

This research has obtained the following conclusions from 30 students in the dental hygiene major of A University in G city which applied flip learning.

1. In study motivation, it showed that there is a fundamental motive for learning with justification because the course is a major subject and is closely related to career path.

2. In learning method, video lectures attracted interest. In teaching method, the interaction of peer learning showed high satisfaction.

3. The results suggest that in order to enhance learning motivation and learning satisfaction, efforts are needed for the learning process of flipped learning associated with relevance, the role of professors and the utilization of necessary knowledge in major.

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by research fund from Songwon University 2019 [A2019-26].

Conflict of Interest

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