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A Study on Dental Hygienists’ Subjective Symptoms of Musculoskeletal Disorders in Their Work Conditions
Int J Clin Prev Dent 2020;16(4):170-176
Published online December 31, 2020;  https://doi.org/10.15236/ijcpd.2020.16.4.170
© 2020 International Journal of Clinical Preventive Dentistry.

hyo jeong kim

Department of Dental Hygiene, Andong Science College, Andong, Korea
Correspondence to: hyo jeong kim
E-mail: med8097@hotmail.com
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5407-2718
Received December 3, 2020; Revised December 24, 2020; Accepted December 28, 2020.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Objective: Three hundreds dental hygienists living in Seoul and Gyeongsang-do and working at dental institutions had participated in a self-administered questionnaire from November 1, 2017 to May 30, 2018. A total of 3 hundreds copies were collected, and then copies with insincere answers and errors were excluded. Finally, a total of 2 hundreds 1 copies were used.
Methods: The collected data was analyzed with SPSS 12.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). According to the study subjects’ general characteristics, their work type, and the body regions related to postures in treatment and in treatment assistance, their subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders were analyzed, and the frequency and percentage of pains were calculated. Pearson’s Correlation Analysis was conducted in order to find relations between subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders in each body region, general characteristics, work conditions, and postures in treatment.
Results: In terms of head posture: 78.3% had pains on their shoulder, and 76.9% on their neck. In terms of back posture: 79.1% had pains on their shoulder, and 76.6% on their neck. In terms of hip posture: 72.2% had pains on their shoulder, and 76.9% on their shoulder. In terms of position at the time of assistance: 71.5% had pains on their back, 79.6% on their shoulder, and 74.2% on their neck. In terms of treatment assistance hours: 74.3% had pains on their neck and 74.3% on their shoulder.
Conclusion: Dental hygienists have repeated motions and inappropriate postures due to long and equal work. As a result, they have the symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders that accompany pains.
Keywords : dental hygienists, musculoskeletal disorders, symptoms, pain
Introduction

This study was conducted with dental hygienists working at dental hospitals or clinics. The issue of occupational musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) related to their work execution comes to the fore.

Occupational MSDsare caused by repeated work and inconvenient work of particular body regions, harsh labor, excessive force, body stress, and others. Generally, it is known that tiny damage to muscles, blood vessels, and nerves of joint areas leads to chronic MSDs that causes pains and paresthesia [1,2].

Dental hygienists work for at least 6 hours a day. During their work hours, they have such problems as the droop of the neck, the posture of bending or turning the back, the repeated work with hands or fingers and the inappropriate position of hands or fingers, and the shoulder’s tension caused by vibration tools. The risk of their occupational diseases is very high. Therefore, considering work conditions and treatment postures, dental hygienists working at dental institutions can easily suffer from MSDs. As a result, more attention has been paid to the MSDs [3
-5].

Therefore, the purpose of this study is to find dental hygienists’ work career, work conditions, postures at work, and pains in a self-administered questionnaire and to provide a fundamental material in order to establish measures and plans for improving problems that dental hygienists have at work, and developing preventive programs.

Materials and Methods

1. Subjects

Three hundreds dental hygienists living in Seoul and Gyeongsang-do and working at dental institutions had participated in a self-administered questionnaire from November 1, 2017 to May 30, 2018. A total of 3 hundreds copies were collected, and then copies with insincere answers and errors were excluded. Finally, a total of 2 hundreds one copies were used.

2. Methods

The collected data was analyzed with SPSS 12.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). According to the study subjects’ general characteristics, their work type, and the body regions related to postures in treatment and in treatment assistance, their subjective symptoms of MSDs were analyzed, and the frequency and percentage of pains were calculated. Pearson’s Correlation Analysis was conducted in order to find relations between subjective symptoms of MSDs in each body region, general characteristics, work conditions, and postures in treatment.

Results

1. General characteristics

Regarding the study subjects’ age, those aged less than 30s accounted for 64.4%. With regard to their subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal pains on the body regions, 78% had pains on their shoulder, 75% on their neck and 73.8% on their back.

Regarding sex, the female group accounted for 97.7%. With regard to their subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal pains on the body regions, 78.4% had pains on their shoulder and 73.3% on their neck.

Regarding height, the group of people with 161cm or higher numbered 154 (59%). With regard to their subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal pains on the body regions, 77.9% had pains on their shoulder, 77.9% on their neck, and 70.8% on their back.

Regarding weight, the group of people with 50 kg or more accounted for 62.8%. With regard to their subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal pains on the body regions, 77.4% had pains on their shoulder and 73.8% on their neck.

Table 1 shows the distribution made according to the study subjects’ general characteristics.

Table 1 . General characteristics

VariablenEyeNeckShoulderArm/elbowHandWristFingerWaistLeg/foot
AgeLess than 30s16872 (42.9)126 (75.0)132 (78.6)57 (33.9)66 (39.3)112 (66.7)63 (37.5)124 (73.8)
More than 30s9337 (39.8)65 (69.9)72 (77.4)23 (24.7)30 (32.3)51 (54.8)23 (24.7)57 (61.3)
p-value0.6300.3720.8290.1230.2590.0590.0360.0360.383
SexFemale255108 (42.4)187 (73.3)200 (78.4)78 (30.6)94 (36.9)160 (62.7)85 (33.3)178 (69.8)
Male61 (16.7)4 (66.7)4 (66.7)2 (33.3)2 (33.3)3 (50.0)1 (16.7)3 (50.0)
p-value0.2070.7160.4910.8850.8590.5240.3910.2980.593
HeightLess than 160 cm10745 (42.1)71 (66.4)84 (78.5)29 (27.1)36 (33.6)66 (61.7)34 (31.8)72 (67.3)
More than 160 cm15464 (41.6)120 (77.9)120 (77.9)51 (33.1)60 (39.0)97 (63.0)52 (33.8)109 (70.8)
p-value0.9360.0380.9110.3000.3810.8300.7370.5480.567
WeightLess than 50 kg9740 (41.2)70 (72.2)77 (79.4)31 (32.0)34 (35.1)58 (59.8)31 (32.0)68 (70.1)
More than 51 kg16469 (42.1)121 (73.8)127 (77.4)49 (29.9)62 (37.8)105 (64.0)55 (33.5)113 (68.9)
p-value0.8950.7760.7140.7250.6560.4950.7930.8390.652

Values are presented as number (%).



2. Work conditions

Regarding work days, those working for 5 days a week accounted for 60.2%. With regard to their subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal pains on the body regions, 74.5% had pains on their neck and 75.8% on their shoulder.

Regarding work types, the study subjects with a type of work in treatment room accounted for 51.6%. With regard to their subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal pains on the body regions, 73.6% had pains on their neck, 79.1% on their shoulder, and 71.5% on their neck.

Regarding night treatment, the study subjects without night treatment accounted for 61.7%. With regard to their subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal pains on the body regions, 74.5% had pains on their neck, 74.5% on their back, and 76.4% on their shoulder. In case of long treatment, a high rate of them had pains on the back.

Regarding shoes, the study subjects wearing medical sandals accounted for 48.2%. With regard to their subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal pains on the body regions, 77.8% had pains on their shoulder and 72.2% on their neck.

Regarding the average number of patients, the study subjects caring for 11-20 patients a day accounted for 37.9%. With regard to their subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal pains on the body regions, 75.8% had pains on their shoulder and 72.7% on their neck. The study subjects caring for 60 patients a day accounted for 14.2%. With regard to their subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal pains on the body regions, 78.4% pains on their shoulder, 73.0% on their back, and 62.2% on their wrist. It means that pains on the back and wrist were added at the time of caring for many patients a day.

Regarding jobs in treatment room, the study subjects with treatment assistance accounted for 64.4%. With regard to their subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal pains on the body regions, 78.6% had pains on their shoulder, 78.0% on their neck, and 76.2% on their back.

Table 2 shows the distribution made according to the study subjects’ work conditions.

Table 2 . Work conditions

VariablenEyeNeckShoulderArm/elbowHandWristFingerWaistLeg/foot
Work type (wk)5 days15765 (41.4)117 (74.5)119 (75.8)49 (31.2)60 (38.2)99 (63.1)53 (33.8)107 (68.2)95 (60.5)
6 days8433 (39.3)61 (72.6)66 (78.6)25 (29.8)26 (31.0)51 (60.7)26 (31.0)58 (69.0)49 (58.3)
etc.2011 (55.0)13 (65.0)19 (95.0)6 (30.0)10 (50.0)13 (65.0)7 (35.0)16 (80.0)14 (70.0)
p-value0.4360.6570.1460.9710.23800.9100.8890.5550.631
Night treatmentNo16171 (44.1)120 (74.5)123 (76.4)49 (30.4)55 (34.2)105 (65.2)57 (35.4)120 (74.5)95 (59.0)
Yes10038 (38.0)71 (71.0)81 (81.0)31 (31.0)41 (41.0)58 (58.0)29 (29.0)61 (61.0)63 (63.0)
p-value0.3310.5310.3820.9230.2650.2420.2850.0210.521
ShoesMedical sandals12655 (43.7)91 (72.2)98 (77.8)41 (32.5)48 (38.1)77 (61.1)38 (30.2)89 (70.6)80 (63.5)
Medical shoes3315 (45.5)25 (75.8)25 (75.8)7 (21.2)12 (36.4)20 (60.6)10 (30.3)23 (69.7)17 (51.5)
Slippers5824 (41.4)40 (69.0)46 (79.3)20 (34.5)21 (36.2)41 (70.7)23 (39.7)40 (69.0)38 (65.5)
etc.4415 (34.1)35 (79.5)35 (79.5)12 (27.3)15 (34.1)25 (56.8)15 (34.1)29 (65.9)23 (52.3)
p-value0.6970.6590.9750.5260.9710.4900.6250.9510.328
Average number of patientLess than 10 patients168 (50.0)13 (81.3)11 (68.8)8 (50.0)9 (56.3)12 (75.0)8 (50.0)11 (68.8)10 (62.5)
11-20 patients9936 (36.4)72 (72.7)75 (75.8)26 (26.3)35 (35.4)59 (59.6)31 (31.3)63 (63.6)57 (57.6)
21-40 patients6332 (50.8)48 (76.2)49 (77.8)19 (30.2)22 (34.9)41 (65.1)16 (25.4)48 (76.2)42 (66.7)
41-60 patients4619 (41.3)37 (80.4)40 (87.0)15 (32.6)17 (37.0)28 (60.9)16 (34.8)32 (69.6)27 (58.7)
More than 60 patient3714 (37.8)21 (56.8)29 (78.4)12 (32.4)13 (35.1)23 (62.2)15 (40.5)27 (73.0)22 (59.5)
p-value0.4080.1280.5160.4250.5860.7990.2990.5350.833

Values are presented as number (%).



3. Postures for treatment assistance

Regarding postures for treatment assistance, the study subjects with sitting posture accounted for 52.1%. With regard to their subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal pains on the body regions, 77.9% had pains on their shoulder and 71.3% on their neck. As for those with standing posture (41.8%), 79.8% had pains on their shoulder, 77.1% on their neck, and 75.2% on their neck. Additionally, those who had pains on their legs and feet accounted for a high percentage (67.0%). In terms of head posture, when looking at treatment regions, the study subjects were asked if they bend or turn their head over 15 degrees. In the question, 54.8% replied that they did so. With regard to their subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal pains on the body regions, 78.3% had pains on their shoulder and 76.9% on their neck. In terms of back posture, the study subjects were asked if they bend or turn their back. In the question, 60.6% replied that they did so. With regard to their subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal pains on the body regions, 79.1% had pains on their shoulder and 76.6% on their neck. In terms of hip posture, the study subjects were asked if they sit on the edge of their chair. In the question, 41.4% replied that they did so. 72.2% had pains on their shoulder and 76.9% on their shoulder. In terms of position at the time of assistance, 71.3% had a position at 3 o’clock generally. With regard to their subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal pains on the body regions, 71.5% had pains on their back, 79.6% on their shoulder, and 74.2% on their neck. A high percentage of them also had pains on their back. In terms of treatment assistance hours, the study subjects with 2-4 treatment assistance hours accounted for 52.2%. With regard to their subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal pains on the body regions, 74.3% had pains on their neck, and 74.3% on their shoulder. Operation assistance accounted for long chair sitting hours.

Table 3 shows the distribution made according to the study subjects’ Postures for treatment assistance.

Table 3 . Work conditions

VariablenEyeNeckShoulderArm/elbowHandWristFingerWaistLeg/foot
Treament assistance positionSitting13658 (42.6)97 (71.3)106 (77.9)44 (32.4)49 (36.0)83 (61.0)45 (33.1)89 (65.4)77 (56.6)
Standing10946 (42.2)84 (77.1)87 (79.8)34 (31.2)44 (40.4)72 (66.1)39 (35.8)82 (75.2)73 (67.0)
etc.165 (31.3)10 (62.5)11 (68.8)2 (12.5)3 (18.8)8 (50.0)2 (12.5)10 (62.5)8 (50.0)
p-value0.6770.3670.6040.2620.2380.4110.1800.2120.173
Head postureAgree14365 (45.5)110 (76.9)112 (78.3)46 (32.2)59 (41.3)92 (64.3)47 (32.9)108 (75.5)94 (65.7)
Neutral8429 (34.5)58 (69.0)63 (75.0)25 (29.8)25 (29.8)48 (57.1)28 (33.3)52 (61.9)44 (52.4)
Disagree3415 (44.1)23 (67.6)29 (85.3)9 (26.5)12 (35.3)23 (67.6)11 (32.4)21 (61.8)20 (58.8)
p-value0.2610.3200.4710.7920.2180.4450.9940.0590.135
Back postureAgree15873 (46.2)121 (76.6)125 (79.1)54 (34.2)64 (40.5)105 (66.5)52 (32.9)116 (73.4)102 (64.6)
Neutral5922 (37.3)39 (66.1)44(74.6)13 (22.0)19 (32.2)32 (54.2)21 (35.6)39 (66.1)34 (57.6)
Disagree4414 (31.8)31 (70.5)35 (79.5)13 (29.5)13 (29.5)26 (59.1)13 (29.5)26 (59.1)22 (50.0)
p-value0.1690.2720.7490.2220.2920.2240.8120.1570.190
Hip postureAgree10847 (43.5)78 (72.2)83 (76.9)32 (29.6)45 (41.7)75 (69.4)39 (36.1)73 (67.6)65 (60.2)
Neutral7029 (41.4)53 (75.7)54 (77.1)26 (37.1)28 (40.0)39 (55.7)21 (30.0)50 (71.4)44 (62.9)
Disagree8333 (39.8)60 (72.3)67 (80.7)22 (26.5)23 (27.7)49 (59.0)26 (31.3)58 (69.9)49 (59.0)
p-value0.8710.8550.7910.3480.1130.1340.6490.8560.886
Position at the time of assistance6 o’clock224 (18.2)11 (50.0)14 (63.6)8 (36.4)8 (36.4)13 (59.1)4 (18.2)10 (45.5)9 (40.9)
3 o’clock18677 (41.4)138 (74.2)148 (79.6)60 (32.3)71 (38.2)113 (60.8)62 (33.3)133 (71.5)121 (65.1)

Values are presented as number (%).


Discussion

Dental hygienists have repeated motions and inappropriate postures due to long and equal work. As a result, they have the symptoms of MSDs that accompany pains.

Therefore, this study tries to analyze dental hygienists’ subjective symptoms of MSDs and their pains, to survey their work conditions and experiences of subjective symptoms of MSDs, and thereby to provide a fundamental material for preventing MSDs through the improvement in their work conditions and efficient work performance [6].

According to the analysis on their general characteristics, most dental hygienists were women (97.7%), and with regard to their subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal pains, they had pains on their shoulder (78.4%) and their neck (73.3%). Regarding age, those aged less than 30s accounted for 64.4%. Regardinig their subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal pains on the body regions, 78% had pains on their shoulder, 75% on their neck, and 73.8% on their back [7,8].

The study subjects in their 30s and older 39.8% also had the same subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal pains on the body regions (the shoulder: 77.4%, the neck: 69.9%, the back: 61.3%) as those aged less than 30s.

Regarding dental hygienists’ symptoms of musculoskeletal pains that those with more than 161 cm in height (59%) had, 77.9% had pains on their shoulder, 77.9% on their neck, and 70.8% on their back.

In case of those with less than 161 cm in height (41%), 78.5% had pains on their shoulder, 67.3% on their back, and 66.4% on their neck.

Regarding dental hygienists’ symptoms of musculoskeletal pains that those with more than 50 kg in weight (62.8%), 77.4% had pains on their shoulder and 73.8% on their neck. In case of those with less than 50 kg in weight (37.2%), 79.4% had pains on their shoulder, 70.1% on their back, and 66.4% on their neck. In the US, dental hygienists suffer pains on their back, their neck, and their shoulder, and, reportedly, their symptoms of MSDs are more than the public’s.

Regarding dental hygienists’ symptoms of musculoskeletal pains according to work conditions, those working for 5 days a week (60.2%) had pains on their the shoulder (75.8%), their neck (74.5%), and their back (68.2%), and those working for 6 days a week (32.2%) had pains on their the shoulder (78.6%), their neck (72.6%), and their back (69.0%). The six-day work group accounted for a higher shoulder-pain rate. Regarding dental hygienists’ symptoms of musculoskeletal pains according to work types, those working in treatment room (51.6%) had pains on their neck (73.6%), their shoulder (79.1%), and their back (71.5%); those working for patient consultation (25.5%) had pains on their shoulder (80.2%), their neck (72.4%), and their back (66.4%); those working at helpdesk (17.4%) had pains on their shoulder (82.3%), their neck (72.2%), and their back (65.8%) [9,10].

The dental hygienists without night treatment (61.7%) had pains on their shoulder (76.4%), their neck (74.5%), and their back (74.5%). Those with night treatment (38.3%) had pains on their shoulder (81.0%), their neck (71.0%), and their back (61.0%). The night-treatment group accounted for a higher shoulder-pain rate.

The dental hygienists caring for 11-20 patients a day (37.9%) had pains on their shoulder (75.8%) and their neck (72.7%). Those caring for more than 60 patients a day (14.2%) had pains on their shoulder (78.4%) their back (73.0%), and their wrist (62.2%). It means that pains on the back and wrist were added at the time of caring for many patients a day. Milerad et al. [11] reported that dental hygienists’ chronic MSDs are related to repeated dental work.

Regarding jobs in treatment room, dental hygienists doing treatment assistance (49.4%) had pains on their shoulder (78.6%), their neck (78.0%), and their back (76.2%). Those (26.2%) doing oral treatment directly had pains on their shoulder (78.7%), their neck (67.4%), and their back (66.3%). Therefore, dental hygienists doing treatment assistance had more subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal pains than those doing oral treatment directly.

With regard to postures for treatment assistance, a high rate of dental hygienists had sitting posture. With regard to their subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal pains, they had pains on their shoulder (77.9%) and their neck (71.3%). Those with sitting posture (41.8%) had pains on their shoulder (79.8%), their neck (77.1%), and their back (75.2%). Additionally, those who had pains on their legs and feet accounted for a high percentage (67.0%) [11].

In terms of head posture, dental hygienists who were bending or turning their head over 15 degrees when looking at treatment regions (60.9%) had pains on their shoulder (78.3%) and their neck (76.9%). They had more subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal pains than those who were not bending their head over 15 degrees (7.3%) [12,13]. Macdonald [14] reported that turning the head on one side or bending the head over 20 degrees in oral treatment is a main cause of stress in the muscles around the neck and the back.

In terms of position for treatment assistance, 71.3% of the study subjects had a position at 3 o’clock, and they had pains on their back (71.5%), their shoulder (79.6%), and their neck (74.2%). The back also accounted for a high rate [8].

In terms of treatment assistance hours, dental hygienists working for 2-4 treatment assistance hours (52.1%) had pains on their neck (74.3%) and their shoulder (74.3%). Cho [8] reported that dental hygienists’ work career and total standing hours a day had significant correlations with pains on their neck and their shoulder [4,5].

Conclusion

1. General characteristics

1) Regarding the study subjects’ age, those aged less than 30s accounted for 64.4%. With regard to their subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal pains on the body regions, 78% had pains on their shoulder, 75% on their neck, and 73.8% on their back.

2) Regarding sex, the female group accounted for 97.7%. With regard to their subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal pains on the body regions, 78.4% had pains on their shoulder, and 73.3% on their neck.

3) Regarding height, the group of people with 161 cm or higher numbered 154 (59%). With regard to their subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal pains on the body regions, 77.9% had pains on their shoulder 77.9% on their neck, and 70.8% on their back.

4) Regarding weight, the group of people with 50 kg or more accounted for 62.8%. With regard to their subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal pains on the body regions, 77.4% had pains on their shoulder, and 73.8% on their neck.

2. Work conditions

1) Regarding work days, those working for 5 days a week accounted for 60.2%. With regard to their subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal pains on the body regions, 74.5% had pains on their neck, and 75.8% on their shoulder.

2) Regarding work types, the study subjects with a type of work in treatment room accounted for 51.6%. With regard to their subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal pains on the body regions, 73.6% had pains on their neck, 79.1% on their shoulder, and 71.5% on their neck.

3) Regarding night treatment, the study subjects without night treatment accounted for 61.7%. With regard to their subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal pains on the body regions, 74.5% had pains on their neck, 74.5% on their back, and 76.4% on their shoulder. In case of long treatment, a high rate of them had pains on the back.

4) Regarding shoes, the study subjects wearing medical sandals accounted for 48.2%. With regard to their subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal pains on the body regions, 77.8% had pains on their shoulder, and 72.2% on their neck.

5) Regarding the average number of patient, the study subjects caring for 11-20 patients a day accounted for 37.9%. With regard to their subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal pains on the body regions, 75.8% had pains on their shoulder, and 72.7% on their neck. The study subjects caring for 60 patients a day accounted for 14.2%. With regard to their subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal pains on the body regions, 78.4% pains on their shoulder, 73.0% on their back, and 62.2% on their wrist. It means that pains on the back and wrist were added at the time of caring for many patients a day.

6) Regarding jobs in treatment room, the study subjects with treatment assistance accounted for 64.4%. With regard to their subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal pains on the body regions, 78.6% had pains on their shoulder, 78.0% on their neck, and 76.2% on their back.

3. Postures for treatment assistance

1) Regarding postures for treatment assistance, the study subjects with sitting posture accounted for 52.1%. With regard to their subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal pains on the body regions, 77.9% had pains on their shoulder, and 71.3% on their neck. As for those with standing posture (41.8%), 79.8% had pains on their shoulder, 77.1% on their neck, and 75.2% on their neck. Additionally, those who had pains on their legs and feet accounted for a high percentage (67.0%).

2) In terms of head posture, when looking at treatment regions, the study subjects were asked if they bend or turn their head over 15 degrees. In the question, 54.8% replied that they did so. With regard to their subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal pains on the body regions, 78.3% had pains on their shoulder, and 76.9% on their neck.

3) In terms of back posture, the study subjects were asked if they bend or turn their back. In the question, 60.6% replied that they did so. With regard to their subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal pains on the body regions, 79.1% had pains on their shoulder, and 76.6% on their neck.

4) In terms of hip posture, the study subjects were asked if they sit on the edge of their chair. In the question, 41.4% replied that they did so. 72.2% had pains on their shoulder and 76.9% on their shoulder.

5) In terms of position at the time of assistance, 71.3% had a position at 3 o’clock generally. With regard to their subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal pains on the body regions, 71.5% had pains on their back, 79.6% on their shoulder, and 74.2% on their neck. A high percentage of them also had pains on their back.

6) In terms of treatment assistance hours, the study subjects with 2-4 treatment assistance hours accounted for 52.2%. With regard to their subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal pains on the body regions, 74.3% had pains on their neck and 74.3% on their shoulder. Operation assistance accounted for long chair sitting hours.

Conflict of Interest

No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.

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