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Impact of an Antibacterial Toothpaste as an Adjunct to Scaling and Root Planing on Gingivitis and the Relative Abundance of Periodontal Pathogens: A Three-Month Randomized Controlled Trial
Int J Clin Prev Dent 2019;15(4):195-201
Published online December 31, 2019;  https://doi.org/10.15236/ijcpd.2019.15.4.195
© 2019 International Journal of Clinical Preventive Dentistry.

Kwang-Hak Bae1, Hye-Sung Kim1, Young-Youn Kim1, Su-Jung Jo1, Hyun-Jae Cho2,3

1Apple Tree Institute of Biomedical Science, Apple tree Dental Hospital, Goyang, 2Department of Preventive Dentistry and Public Oral Health, 3Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
Correspondence to: Hyun-Jae Cho
E-mail: stbluewi@snu.ac.kr
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3079-8629
Received November 26, 2019; Revised December 27, 2019; Accepted December 28, 2019.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of toothpaste containing glycyrrhiza and curcuma longa extracts as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP), versus a negative control, in reducing gingivitis and the relative abundance (RA) of periodontal pathogens.
Methods: This was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, single-center, three-month clinical trial. Each subject aged 20 to 69 years had ≤2 teeth with a probing depth >4 mm at each quadrant. At baseline, a placebo or anti-bacterial toothpaste was given to each subject. The first clinical examination and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) sampling were performed just before SRP. After 2, 6, and 10 weeks of SRP, clinical examination and GCF sampling were performed again. The clinical index included the percentage of bleeding on probing (%BOP) and Loe and Silness’s gingival index (GI). The RA of seven species of periodontal pathogens was measured in GCF samples using real-time polymerase chain reaction.
Results: Forty-three subjects (21 and 22 subjects in the control and experimental groups, respectively) were analyzed. In the experimental group, the reduction of gingivitis at 10 weeks was significantly greater than that in the placebo group in terms of GI (p=0.128) and %BOP (p=0.004) scores. The RA of Porphyromonas gingivalis decreased a little more over all follow-up periods in the experimental group than in the placebo group. There was a significantly greater reduction in the RA of Tannerella forsythia at 2 weeks in the experimental group versus placebo (p=0.023).
Conclusions: A toothpaste containing glycyrrhiza and curcuma longa extracts may reduce gingivitis and RA of periodontal pathogens.
Keywords : gingivitis, chronic periodontitis, randomized controlled trial, real-time polymerase chain reaction, toothpastes
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