search for


Halitosis Reduction Effect of a Natural Extract-Containing Toothpaste In Vivo
Int J Clin Prev Dent 2019;15(4):183-187
Published online December 31, 2019;
© 2019 International Journal of Clinical Preventive Dentistry.

Ji-Young Lee1, Inchul Hwang2, Se-Hyun Hwang1

1Department of Dental Hygiene, Dongju College, 2Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School, Kosin University, Busan, Korea
Correspondence to: Inchul Hwang
Received November 30, 2019; Revised December 19, 2019; Accepted December 30, 2019.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Objectives: Compositions extracted from 31 kinds of natural materials were prepared and formulated with toothpaste ingredients (e.g., cleaning, polishing, flavoring), to evaluate the halitosis reduction effect compared to a commercial toothpaste.
Methods: This research was performed between May and June, 2019 with 30 females over 20 years of age. Assessments of halitosis were conducted before brushing teeth, and 30 minutes and 3 hours after brushing using a natural extract-containing dentifrice (experimental group) and a commercial dentifrice (positive control group).
Results: The average values of halitosis measurements decreased significantly over time (F=133.087, p=0.000); values in the experimental and control groups, respectively were: 32.6±17.5 vs. 34.3±14.2 (pre-brushing), 10.6±8.7 vs. 16.2±10.3 (30 min post-brushing) and 4.6±6.9 vs. 5.5±8.8 (3 h post-brushing). No differences were exhibited between the groups (F=1.583, p=0.213) and between the groups and time (F=1.020, p=0.364).
Conclusions: The natural extract-containing dentifrice was more effective at reducing halitosis 30 minutes after brushing compared to a commercial dentifrice, however, the effect was similar among the groups 3 hours after brushing, and this effect was maintained consistently over time. The natural extract-containing dentifrice developed in this study is expected to be: i) safe for use long-term use (i.e., no side effects) and ii) an appropriate dentifrice for reducing halitosis.
Keywords : natural extract, oral malodor, dentifrice, toothpaste, halitosis
  1. Kim JB, Paik DI, Moon HS, Kim HD, Jin BH, Choi YG, et al. Clinical preventive dentistry. 4th ed. Seoul: Gomoonsa; 2005:97- 130.
  2. Park KC, Shin SC, Song KB. Prospective preventive dentistry. Seoul: Jungmoongak; 1997:323-36.
  3. Hwang DG, Na SR, Cho HJ, Kim SJ, Kim HE, Qiaochu S, et al. Toothpaste development trend analysis - composition. Korean J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2016;40:697-708.
  4. Kim BI, Kim SN, Chang SY, Moon KT, Kim YS, Hwang JK, et al. A highly selective antibacterial effect of Curcuma xanthor-rhiza extract against oral pathogens and clinical effectiveness of a dentifrice containing Curcuma xanthorrhiza extract for con-trolling bad breath. J Korean Acad Dent Health 2005;29:222-37.
  5. Hine MK. Halitosis. J Am Dent Assoc 1957;55:37-46.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  6. Feller L, Blignaut E. Halitosis: a review. SADJ 2005;60:17-9.
  7. Yaegaki K, Sanada K. Volatile sulfur compounds in mouth air from clinically healthy subjects and patients with periodontal disease. J Periodontal Res 1992;27(4 Pt 1):233-8.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  8. Pratibha PK, Bhat KM, Bhat GS. Oral malodor: a review of the literature. J Dent Hyg 2006;80:8.
  9. Cho JW, Shin SC, Jee YJ, Jung HY, Park JH, Kang SY. Effect of sodium lauryl sulfate non-containing dentifrice on salivary flow and oral malodor. Int J Clin Prev Dent 2006;2:178-88.
  10. Jung HY, Shin SC, Cho JW, Kim IS. A clinical study on the oral malodor related to saliva and tongue plaque. Int J Clin Prev Dent 2005;1:54-63.
  11. Flötra L, Gjermo P, Rölla G, Waerhaug J. Side effects of chlo-rhexidine mouth washes. Scand J Dent Res 1971;79:119-25.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  12. McCullough MJ, Farah CS. The role of alcohol in oral carcino-genesis with particular reference to alcohol-containing mouthwashes. Aust Dent J 2008;53:302-5.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  13. Na HJ. Changes in dental plaque and bacteria by the use of tooth-paste containing sodium hydrogen carbonate. Int J Clin Prev Dent 2014;10:197-202.
  14. Ahn JH, Kim JH, Shin SC. The abrasive effect of toothpastes con-taining remineralization components. Int J Clin Prev Dent 012;8:215-23.
  15. Bae KH, Lee BJ, Jang YK, Lee BR, Lee WJ, Chang DS, et al. The effect of mouthrinse products containing sodium fluoride, cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), pine leaf extracts and green tea extracts on the plaque , gingivitis , dental caries and halitosis. J Korean Acad Oral Health 2001;25:51-9.
  16. Cho BJ, Hong JY, Kim MJ, Song YO. Development of mouth-wash products with solid fermented oriental medicinal herb. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2014;43:1380-7.
  17. Eom KH, Kim JS. Deodorizing effect of Cheonggugamrosu. J Korean Orient Int Med 2007;28:354-62.
  18. Lee JY, Hwang IC. The effect of a natural extracts-containing toothpaste on dental plaque reduction in vivo. Int J Clin Prev Dent 2019;15:168-72.
  19. Kim HK. Deodorizing effect of several antibacterial medicinal herbs on oral malodor [thesis]. [Seoul]: KyungHee University; 2010.
  20. Kim SA. The effect of natural extract mixture on the reduction of oral malodor [thesis]. [Busan]: Kosin University; 2017.

December 2019, 15 (4)