search for


Validity on the Study Models of Dental Simulation Training: Focus on the Dental Arch and Occlusal Curvature
Int J Clin Prev Dent 2018;14(3):171-176
Published online September 30, 2018;
© 2018 International Journal of Clinical Preventive Dentistry.

Hee-Kyung Lee1, Shin-Eun Nam2

1Department of Dental Technology, Daegu Health College, Daegu, 2Baron Dental Lab, Busan, Korea
Correspondence to: Shin-Eun Nam
Baron Dental Lab, 24 Myeongnyun-ro 94beon-gil, Dongnae-gu, Busan 47814, Korea. Tel: +82-51-558-2804, Fax: +82-51-511-1708, E-mail:
Received August 15, 2018; Revised September 5, 2018; Accepted September 16, 2018.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of the study models involved in the simulation training for dental technology using 3-dimensional virtual models.
Methods: The study models and dental models from 25 young adult Korean were scanned as a virtual dental model with a 3-dimensional scanner (Scanner S600; Zirkonzahn). The dental arch form (arch width, arch length), buccolingual cusp inclination, and the radius of Monson’s sphere were measured on prepared virtual models using RapidForm2004 (INUS Technology Inc.). Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed to verify the validity of the study models participating in the dental technique training using 3-dimensional virtual models (α=0.05). 
Results: Arch width (intercanine width/intermolar width) and arch length (incisor to intercanine/incisor to intermolar) were smaller in both upper and lower study models than those of adult Korean models in general (p<0.05). In maxilla, buccolingual cusp inclinations of right and left side of premolars and molar were larger (2.21°-5.20°) in adult Korean models except for the first molar (p<0.05), which was the opposite in mandible (2.98°-9.20°) (p<0.05). The radii of Monson’ sphere was 104.92 mm in the study models and 121.85±47.11 mm in adult Korean models. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (p>0.05).
Conclusion: In the study models involved in the simulation training, dental arch was smaller. Buccolingual cusp inclination was more inclined for upper and less inclined for lower than 25 subjects. This finding could be used as a meaningful reference for further studies focusing on validity on dental technique trainings for study models.
Keywords : simulation training, dental models, dental arch, dental occlusion, dental technology
  1. Nam SE, Lee HK. The evaluation of sample models for department of dental technology using a 3-dimensional virtual models. Collect Dissert Daegu Health Coll 2014;34:23-38.
  2. Oh YR, Lee SB, Park NS, Choi DG. A study of intraoal anatomic landmarks of Korean adult-upper jaw. J Korean Acad Prosthodont 1995;33:753-68.
  3. Park YS, Lee SP, Paik KS. The three-dimensional relationship on a virtual model between the maxillary anterior teeth and incisive papilla. J Prosthet Dent 2007;98:312-8.
  4. Nam SE, Lee HK. Association between mandibular occlusal morphology and occlusal curvature. J Kor Aca Den Tec 2016;38:217-24.
  5. Germane N, Staggers JA, Rubenstein L, Revere JT. Arch length considerations due to the curve of Spee: a mathematical model. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1992;102:251-5.
  6. Balridge DW. Leveling the curve of Spee: its effect on the mandibular arch length. J Pract Orthod 1969;3:26-41.
  7. Ferrario VF, Sforza C, Poggio CE, Serrao G, Colombo A. Three-dimensional dental arch curvature in human adolescents and adults. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1999;115:401-5.
  8. Cheon SH, Park YH, Paik KS, Ahn SJ, Hayashi K, Yi WJ, et al. Relationship between the curve of Spee and dentofacial morphology evaluated with a 3-dimensional reconstruction method in Korean adults. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2008;133:640.e7-14.
  9. Kagaya K, Minami I, Nakamura T, Sato M, Ueno T, Igarashi Y. Three-dimensional analysis of occlusal curvature in healthy Japanese young adults. J Oral Rehabil 2009;36:257-63.
  10. Lee SP, Nam SE, Lee YM, Park YS, Hayashi K, Lee JB. The development of quantitative methods using virtual models for the measurement of tooth wear. Clin Anat 2012;25:347-58.
  11. Wilson GH. A manual of dental prosthetics. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger; 1911:22-37.
  12. Nam SE, Lee SP. Evaluation of the relationship between Monson’s sphere and arch form and cusp angle using three-dimensional reconstruction method. Kor J Dent Mater 2013;40:195-204.
  13. Spee FG. Die Verschiebungsbahn des Unterkiefers am Schädel. Archives fur Anatomie und Physiologie 1890;16:285-93.
  14. Monson GS. Occlusion as applied to crown and bridge-work. J Nat Dent Assoc 1920;7:399-413.
  15. Bonwill WGA. The geometrical and mechanical laws of the articulation of the human teeth: the anatomical articulator. In: Litch WF, ed. The American system of dentistry. Philadelphia: Lea Brothers; 1885:486-98.
  16. Lynch CD, McConnell RJ. Prosthodontic management of the curve of Spee: use of the Broadrick flag. J Prosthet Dent 2002;87:593-7.
  17. Nam SE, Park YS, Lee W, Ahn SJ, Lee SP. Making three-dimensional Monson's sphere using virtual dental models. J Dent 2013;41:336-44.
  18. Marshall SD, Caspersen M, Hardinger RR, Franciscus RG, Aquilino SA, Southard TE. Development of the curve of Spee. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthoop 2008;134:344-52.

September 2018, 14 (3)