search for


Remineralizing Agents: A Comprehensive Review
Int J Clin Prev Dent 2017;13(1):1-4
Published online March 31, 2017;
© 2017 International Journal of Clinical Preventive Dentistry.

Rakesh Mittal, Nikhil Relhan, Tanya Tangri

Sudha Rustagi College of Dental Sciences and Research, Faridabad, India
Correspondence to:
Tanya Tangri
Sudha Rustagi College of Dental Sciences and Research, Kheri More Sector-89, Gr Faridabad 121002, India. 
Tel:+91-129-4230000, Fax: +91-129-4230010, E-mail:
Received February 7, 2017; Revised March 14, 2017; Accepted March 15, 2017.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Remineralizing agents are the most desirable means of early enamel caries management. There is a scope for such agents as
they prevent the progression of white spot lesions and reverse the process of demineralization. This need has redirected research
to develop novel preventive agents that can act as an adjunct to fluoride or independent of it.
Keywords :
remineralization, fluoride, casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate, novamin, tricalcium phosphate,
  1. Somasundaram P, Vimala N, Mandke LG. Protective potential of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate containing paste on enamel surfaces. J Conserv Dent 2013;16:152-6.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  2. Yadav S, Singh S, Sharma P, Thapliyal A, Gupta V. Antibiofilm formation activity of Terminalia bellerica plant extract against clinical isolates of streptococcus mutans and streptococcus sobrinus:implication in oral hygiene. Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2012;3:816-21.
  3. Gamboa F, Estupinan M, Galindo A. Presence of Streptococcus mutans in saliva and its relationship with dental caries: antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates. Universitas Scientiarum 2004;9:23-7.
  4. Patil N, Choudhari S, Kulkarni S, Joshi SR. Comparative evaluation of remineralizing potential of three agents on artificially demineralized human enamel: an in vitro study. J Conserv Dent 2013;16:116-20.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  5. Vashisht R, Indira R, Ramachandran S, Kumar A, Srinivasan MR. Role of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate in remineralization of white spot lesions and inhibition of Streptococcus mutans? J Conserv Dent 2013;16:342-6.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  6. Naveena PP, Nagarathana C, Sakunthala BK. Remineralizing agent -then and now -an update. Dentistry 2014;4:256.
  7. Mehta R, Nandlal B, Prashanth S. Comparative evaluation of remineralization potential of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride on artificial enamel white spot lesion:an in vitro light fluorescence study. Indian J Dent Res 2013;24:681-9.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  8. Reynolds EC. Calcium phosphate-based remineralization systems:scientific evidence? Aust Dent J 2008;53:268-73.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  9. Lata S, Varghese NO, Varughese JM. Remineralization potential of fluoride and amorphous calcium phosphate-casein phospho peptide on enamel lesions: an in vitro comparative evaluation. J Conserv Dent 2010;13:42-6.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  10. Ten Cate JM. In vitro studies on the effects of fluoride on de and remineralization. J Dent Res 1990;69:614-9; discussion 634-6.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  11. Khan AA. Mechanisms of action of fluoride in dental caries. Pak Oral Dent J 2002;22:49-54.
  12. Sh P, Raghu R, Shetty A, Gautham P, Reddy S, Srinivasan R. Effect of organic versus inorganic fluoride on enamel microhardness:an in vitro study. J Conserv Dent 2013;16:203-7.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  13. Peter S. Essentials of preventive and community dentistry. 4th ed. New Delhi: AryaMedi Publishers; 2009:237-82.
  14. Jo SY, Chong HJ, Lee EH, Chang NY, Chae JM, Cho JH, et al. Effects of various toothpastes on remineralization of white spot lesions. Korean J Orthod 2014;44:113-8.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  15. Karlinsey RL, Mackey AC, Walker ER, Amaechi BT, Karthikeyan R, Najibfard K, et al. Remineralization potential of 5,000 ppm fluoride dentifrices evaluated in a pH cycling model. J. Dent Oral Hyg 2010;2:1-6.
  16. Balakrishnan A, Jonathan R, Benin P, Kuumar A. Evaluation to determine the caries remineralization potential of three dentifrices:an in vitro study. J Conserv Dent 2013;16:375-9.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  17. Reynolds EC. Remineralization of enamel subsurface lesions by casein phosphopeptide-stabilized calcium phosphate solutions. J Dent Res 1997;76:1587-95.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  18. Reynolds EC, Jhonson IH. Effect of milk on caries incidence and bacterial composition of dental plaque in the rat. Arch Oral Biol 1981;26:445-51.
  19. Rosen S, Min DB, Harper DS, Harper WJ, Beck EX, Beck FM. Effect of cheese, with and without sucrose, on dental caries and recovery of Streptococcus mutans in rats. J Dent Res 1984;63:894-6.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  20. Oshiro M, Yamaguchi K, Takamizawa T, Inage H, Watanabe T, Irokawa A, et al. Effect of CPP-ACP paste on tooth mineralization:an FE-SEM study. J Oral Sci 2007;49:115-20.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  21. Jefferies SR. Advances in remineralization for early carious lesions:a comprehensive review. Compend Contin Educ Dent 2014;35:237-43; quiz 244.
  22. Vashisht R, Kumar A, Indira R, Srinivasan MR, Ramachandran S. Remineralization of early enamel lesions using casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate: an ex-vivo study. Contemp Clin Dent 2010;1:210-3.
  23. Reema SD, Lahiri PK, Roy SS. Review of casein phosphopeptidesamorphous calcium phosphate. Chin J Dent Res 2014;17:7-14.
  24. Jayarajan J, Janardhanam P, Jayakumar P; Deepika. Efficacy of CPP-ACP and CPP-ACPF on enamel remineralization - an in vitro study using scanning electron microscope and DIAGNOdent. Indian J Dent Res 2011;22:77-82.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  25. Narayana SS, Deepa VK, Ahamed S, Sathish ES, Meyappan R, Satheesh Kumar KS. Remineralization efficiency of bioactive glass on artificially induced carious lesion an in-vitro study. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2014;32:19-25.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  26. Kumar A, Singh S, Thumar G, Mengji A. Bioactive Glass Nanoparticles (NovaMinⓇ) for applications in dentistry. J Dent Med Sci 2015;14:30-5.
  27. Mony S, Rao A, Shenoy R, Suprabha BS. Comparative evaluation of the remineralizing efficacy of calcium sodium phosphosilicate agent and fluoride based on quantitative and qualitative analysis. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev 2015;33:291-5.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  28. Asaizumi M, Karlinsey RL, Mackey AC, Kato T, Kuga T. In vitro assessments of white-spot lesions treated with NaF plus tricalcium phosphate (TCP) toothpastes using microtomography (micro-CT). J Dent Oral Hyg 2013;5:68-76.
  29. Hemagaran G, Neelakantan P. Remineralization of the tooth structure - the future of dentistry. Int J PharmTech Res 2014;6:487-93.
  30. Grenby TH, Bull JM. Chemical studies of the protective action of phosphate compounds against the demineralization of human dental enamel in vitro. Caries Res 1980;14:210-20.
  31. Sano H, Nakashima S, Songpaisan Y, Phantumvanit P. Effect of a xylitol and fluoride containing toothpaste on the remineralization of human enamel in vitro. J Oral Sci 2007;49:67-73.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  32. Goldstep F. Proactive intervention dentistry: a model for oral care through life. Compend Contin Educ Dent 2012;33:394-6, 398-402; quiz 404, 416.

March 2024, 20 (1)